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The Cosby Challenge: Resource-Pooling Strategies for Black Economic and Educational Progress

Capital, Entrepreneurship, and Black Progress: Harnessing Black Financial Power Through a National Venture Capital Fund


Business - Entrepreneurship - Capital


Reports, Articles, Papers, Etc.


Click Here for: Special Section: Inner-City Business Development & Revitalization

This listing includes only a sampling of initiatives & works and is by no means comprehensive. It will be continually expanded and updated. We invite (and greatly appreciate) suggestions on materials that merit inclusion in the listing.


State of the Inner City Economies: Small Businesses in the Inner City. Initiative for a Competitive Inner City. Oct 2005


New Atlanta-Based Business Development Center Focused on Increasing Minority Entrepreneurship and Business Expansion. Nov 10, 2005


Kansas City Launches the first of five Urban Entrepreneur Partnership centers. September 20, 2005


National Urban League / Stonehenge Capital Empowerment Fund


Federal Procurement after Adarand. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights report. September 2005.


Understanding Entrepreneurship: A Research and Policy Report. Kauffman Foundation. 2005.

    Includes: "The Entrepreneurial Path for Residents of Disadvantaged Communities," Timothy Bates


Using Entrepreneurship to Fight Poverty.


The Power of Entrepreneurship Education. Region Focus (Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond), Fall 2005.


Remembering John H. Johnson (Ebony Magazine).


Sometimes Black Businesses Need Alternative Financing-Confessions of a Black (Sub)Micro Lender. Nadra Enzi. July 20, 2005.  BlackBusinessList.Com.


Small Business and Microenterprise as an Opportunity and Asset-Building Strategy. Henry Chen and Signe-Mary McKernan. Urban Institute. June 2005


The New Agenda for Minority Business Development (Report). James H. Lowry and Richard Holland (Boston Consulting Group). Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. June 2005

Minority-owned businesses face challenges. Companies must have aggressive growth strategies, study says. Tannette Johnson-Elie. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. June 28, 2005


Minority-owned firms must move into growth mode. Study reports progress but calls for adjustments. Joyce Smith. Kansas City Star. June 29, 2005.


Study Sees Obstacles to Minority Business Growth. Minority owners tend to cap growth after self-sufficiency, report finds. Mina Azodi. July 7, 2005

Promoting Economic Growth & Corporate Leadership: Engaging The Boardroom. The Federal Reserve Banks of Chicago and Boston and the Business Roundtable hosted a conference that re-examined companies' approach to supplier diversity and the necessary and appropriate role of the CEO in minority supplier development strategies. June 9-10, 2005


Welcoming Remarks for "Promoting Economic Growth & Corporate Leadership: Engaging the Boardroom". Michael H. Moskow. June 9, 2005

Making the Case for Minority Business Development in American Corporations. Donet Graves, Director of Public Policy, Business Roundtable & Jeremiah Boyle, Community Affairs Program Director, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. April 2005.

Microsoft and U.S. Department of Commerce Help Minority- and Women-Owned Businesses Unlock Potential . May 25, 2005


Access to Capital for Women- and Minority-Owned Businesses. Remarks by Michael H. Moskow, President and CEO, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, at the Women and Minority Owned Business Enterprises Investment Banking Conference, Chicago, IL. March 4, 2005.


Black businesses still challenging obstacles. Hampton Roads Daily Press. 22 Feb 2005


Black women turning to entrepreneurship. Yvette Armendariz. The Arizona Republic. Feb. 11, 2005

Spotlight: The Urban Entrepreneur Partnership


New Atlanta-Based Business Development Center Focused on Increasing Minority Entrepreneurship and Business Expansion. Nov 10, 2005


Kansas City Launches the first of five Urban Entrepreneur Partnership centers. September 20, 2005


National Urban League Announces Urban Entrepreneur Partnership. October 15, 2004. National Urban League President and CEO Marc H. Morial announced today a new groundbreaking national partnership to encourage minority entrepreneurship and business development nationwide.


Unprecedented National Partnership Launched to Encourage Minority Entrepreneurship. October 15, 2004. Urban Entrepreneur Partnership to Provide Business Training, Coaching, Procurement Opportunities and Access to Financing Nationwide. Atlanta, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Jacksonville, Kansas City to be Pilot Cities. The National Urban League, Business Roundtable, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, National Economic Council.

New Help for the Black Entrepreneur. Elizabeth Olson. The New York Times. December 23, 2004


The Entrepreneur Next Door. July 27, 2004. The Kauffman Foundation. This national, multi-year study is the first research effort to offer systematic and reliable data on the process of business formation.


President Bush announces initiative with National Urban League, Kauffman Foundation. Program to encourage minority entrepreneurship. July 23, 2004


Fact Sheet: Encouraging Minority Entrepreneurship. The White House.


The Rise of the Urban Entrepreneur. Michael E. Porter. Inc. Magazine, May 1995. A Harvard Business School professor explains that small urban businesses can thrive and how the government can help.

What Makes an Entrepreneur? David G. Blanchflower, Andrew J. Oswald. Journal of Labor Economics, Jan. 1998.


Dynamics of Minority-Owned Employer Establishments, 1997-2001. Ying Lowrey, U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. February 2005.

Using Census BITS to Explore Entrepreneurship, Geography, and Economic Growth.
Zoltan Acs and Catherine Armington. Small Business Administration. February 2005


'50 Most Important Blacks in Technology' - 2005. US Black Engineer & Information Technology. December 16, 2004


Town meeting; Some say African Town plan gives voice to real need to help black businesses. Crain's Detroit Business. October 2004. Sheena Harrison

Blazing new trails: Black Enterprise's Small Business Award recipients continue to break new ground in entrepreneurship. Nkechi I. Olisemeka. Black Enterprise, October 2004.

A picture of black entrepreneurship? [Soul Plane (movie) .... "some of the worst, most racist depictions of African Americans in recent memory.."]. Earl G. Graves, Sr. Black Enterprise, August, 2004.

Wall Street rogues: fast cars, women, and cash. These financial whizzes had it all. But some of them crossed the line to get rich and ended up serving hard time, creating scandals that continue to affect the black investment community. Alan Hughes. Black Enterprise, August 2004

The Challenges of Black Entrepreneurship. The Tavis Smiley Show, August 4, 2004. NPR's Tavis Smiley talks to corporate attorney Isaac Vaughn, hailed by Black Enterprise magazine as one of America's top black lawyers, about overcoming the challenges people of color often face when they seek to own their own businesses.

USBE Top Technology Entrepreneurs: Leading the Way. Garland L. Thompson. US Black Engineer & Information Technology. August 9, 2004. Moving Black Americans out of their disadvantaged status means moving more Black-owned technology businesses into the nation's mainstream. Meet a group of entrepreneurs who are quietly leading the way.

Businesses Owned by Women of Color in the United States, 2004. Center for Women's Business Research


Blacks outpace whites in business startups, but see less success. Tannette Johnson-Elie. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, June 30, 2004.


Black Entrepreneurs Are Finding Success Building Business Ties With Africa. Donna M. Owens. June 4, 2004


Magic Johnson to Minority Business Owners: Idolize Your Hometown Business Hero, Not the Jump Shot. Minorities and Women In Business


U. S. Census Bureau

1997 Economic Census: Surveys of Minority- and Women-Owned Business Enterprises

1997 Economic Census: Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises - Black

2002 Economic Census


ING GAZELLE INDEX. Quarterly survey of the confidence, expectations and plans of the CEOs of the nation's fastest growing African American-owned businesses.


Ariel/Schwab Surveys – African Americans and Investing - 1998-2004


The Buying Power of Black America 2003. Target Market News


Benchmarking the Corporate Minority Supplier Development Program. National Minority Supplier Development Council


Some Useful Sources of Additional Information

Hearing:"Diversity in the Financial Services Industry and Access to Capital for Minority-Owned Businesses: Challenges and Opportunities". Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, US House of Representatives. July 15, 2004

Accelerating Job Creation and Economic Productivity - Expanding Financing Opportunities for Minority Businesses. Minority Business Development Agency. 2004.

Creating Capital, Jobs and Wealth in Emerging Domestic Markets: Financial Technology Transfer to Low-Income Communities. Glenn Yago, Betsy Zeidman, and Bill Schmidt. The Milken Institute, January 2003.

The Minority Business Challenge. Milken Institute and the Minority Business Development Agency. September 25, 2000.

Minorities and Venture Capital: A New Wave of American Business. Timothy Bates and William Bradford. The Kauffman Foundation, July 2003.

Financing Disadvantaged Firms. Timothy Bates, Wayne State University. Prepared for publication in the edited volume, Credit Markets for the Poor. July 2003.

The Wealth Dynamics of Entrepreneurship for Black and White Families in the U.S. William D. Bradford. Review of Income and Wealth, March 2003.

Financing the Development of Urban Minority Communities: Lessons of History. Timothy Bates. Wayne State University

Government as Venture Capital Catalyst: Pitfalls and Promising Approaches. Timothy Bates. Economic Development Quarterly. February, 2002.

Bringing Back 'Black Wall Street'. Melissa S. Monroe. July 14, 2004. National conference draws on the past to help redirect dollars back into the African American community.

Ford, academic institutions to help minority businesses. Sarah A. Webster. Detroit Free Press. June 25, 2004

Ford Launches First Ever Academic Program For Black Entrepreneurship

Babson and Ford Motor Co. Support Minority Entrepreneurship

Ford Motor Company announces a partnership with Babson College and participating Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) to launch the first ever academic program to focus on black entrepreneurship.

Babson College, HBCU consortium to develop entrepreneurship curriculum. Black Issues in Higher Education. June 19, 2003

Black Enterprise Announces Top Grossing Companies. 32nd Annual Report on Black-Owned Businesses. May 13, 2004
Press Release: Stonehenge Capital and National Urban League to Form $127.5 Million Community Investment Fund. May 6, 2004.

Understanding Self-Perceptions of Business Performance: An Examination of Black American Entrepreneurs. Colbert Rhodes & John Sibley Butler. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. May 2004.

Black Power Inc.: The New Voice of Success. Cora Daniels. John Wiley. 2004. At

Young, Gifted, Black—And Out of Here. Cora Daniels. Fortune. A generation looks beyond acceptance in business.

The Changing Face of Black Power. Jabari Asim. The Washington Post. June 1, 2004

The New Black Power on Wall Street. Kimberly L. Allers. Fortune. June 28, 2004

The Billion Dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the Inside Story of Black Entertainment Television. Brett Pulley. John Wiley. 2004

Bob Johnson: The Billion Dollar BET. Cora Daniels. Fortune.

The 3 Keys to Entrepreneurial Success. Access to capital. Education and its financial literacy. Technology, participating in e-commerce and benefiting from the technology. Minority Enterprise Advocate. Minority Business Development Agency. March/April 2004.

Keys to Minority Entrepreneurial Success: Capital, Education, and Technology. Patricia Buckley, U.S. Department of Commerce, Minority Business Development Agency. September 2002

Entrepreneur flourishes through the black middle class. Karen M. Thomas. The Dallas Morning News. February 23, 2004.

Entrepreneurial enthusiasm: black teens see greater job security in owning a business. Carolyn M. Brown. Black Enterprise. Feb 2004.

The Role of Black-owned Businesses in Community Development. Thomas D. Boston. In: Paul Ong (ed.), Economic Development in Minority Communities. 2004.

The Relationship Between Black Patronage of Black-owned Businesses and Black Employment. Thomas D. Boston. In: J. Whitehead, J. Stewart and C. Conrad (eds.). Readings in Black Political Economy. Dubuque: Kendall-Hunt. 2004.

Recent Trends Among Black-Owned Businesses Based on the Latest Census. Allied Social Science Association, Annual Meetings in Atlanta, National Economic Association Panel. January 2002.

Minority Business Trends. Thomas D. Boston. In Smelser, N., Wilson, W.J. and Mitchell, F. (eds.), America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Washington, D.C. National Academy of Science Press. 2000.

Minority Entrepreneurs: Minority Rule. Cora Daniels. Fortune Small Business. December 4, 2003. Rather than fight their way up the corporate ladder, nonwhites are launching startups in record numbers and crushing old stereotypes in the process.

Minority Entrepreneurs: Legends - Does Race Still Matter? Fortune Small Business. December 4, 2003. Ten great minority entrepreneurs weigh in on affirmative action, the old boys' network, and whether to sell out.

The Next Black Power Movement: The boom in African-American entrepreneurship isn't just a business story. It's also a logical extension of the civil rights struggle. Here's why. (Part One). David J. Dent. Fortune Small Business. May 1, 2003.

The Rise of the Black Entrepreneur: A new force for economic and moral leadership. Anthony B. Bradley, Acton Institute. May 7, 2003

Black Innovators and Entrepreneurs Under Capitalism. Andrew Bernstein.

The Crying Need for Black Entrepreneurship. Tony Brown. American Enterprise Online. December, 2003.

Black Enterprise -- A Forgotten Legacy. Robert L. Woodson, Sr. Investor's Business Daily

African American Entrepreneurship: A Historical Look at Over a Century of Self-Employment. Vicki Bogan and William Darity, Jr.

A brand new game: for these athletes, entrepreneurship is the next playing field. Alan Hughes. Black Enterprise, March 2003.

Business educated: African Americans with advanced degrees turn to entrepreneurship. Daniel R. Brown. Black Enterprise, November 2002. African Americans with advanced degrees are nearly twice as likely to go into business for themselves than their white counterparts...

Smart business tips for black entrepreneurs. Ebony, May 2002.

Creating a new wave of entrepreneurs (Milwaukee, WI). Tannette Johnson-Elie. Feb. 18, 2002

Small Business and Micro-Business Lending Study 2002 (historical versions: 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998). Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). December 2003. This report uses Call Report and Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) data to identify the micro-business-friendly with significant lending activity in loans under $100,000.

Advisory Letter: Financing Minority Businesses. From: Anna Alvarez Boyd, Deputy Comptroller for Community Affairs, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. To: Chief Executive Officers of All National Banks and National Bank Operating Subsidiaries, Department and Division Heads, and All Examining Personnel. October 24, 2003.

Earl Graves: Black Enterprise. I Built A Magazine To Teach The Black Entrepreneur How To Tap Into The Billions Of Dollars We Generate. That's Black Power. (The Visionaries). Fortune Small Business, September 1, 2003.

Why are Black-Owned Businesses Less Successful than White-Owned Businesses: The Role of Families, Inheritances, and Business Human Capital. Robert W. Fairlie, Yale University/University of California, Santa Cruz and Alicia M. Robb, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and Foundation for Sustainable Development. October 2003

Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families. Robert W. Fairlie. Forthcoming Small Business Economics. June 2003.

Entrepreneurial Performance by Women and Minorities: The Case of New Firms. Alicia M. Robb. Journal of Developmental Enterprise, December 2002

Race and the Digital Divide. Robert W. Fairlie. August 2002

Does Business Ownership Provide a Source of Upward Mobility for Blacks and Hispanics?. June 2001. Robert W. Fairlie. In Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship. Douglas Holtz-Eakin and Harvey S. Rosen (editors). MIT Press, 2004.

The Absence of the African-American Owned Business: An Analysis of the Dynamics of Self-Employment. Robert W. Fairlie. Journal of Labor Economics, January 1999.

Hispanic venture capital fund begins investment activities. October 3, 2003

Hispanics’ Access to Capital. Alvaro Arce. Policy Brief. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute. 2003

Access To Capital Markets For Hispanic-Owned Businesses: Challenges and Public Policy Opportunities. J. Antonio Villamil. The Washington Economics Group. July 31, 2002.

Access to Capital Markets for Hispanic-Owned Businesses: Trends and Public Policy Issues (Powerpoint). J. Antonio Villamil. September 2002.

Small Business Loan Turndowns, Personal Wealth and Discrimination. Ken Cavalluzzo and John D. Wolken. May 2003. FEDS Working Paper No. 2002-35. Forthcoming, Journal of Business.

Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey. Ken S. Cavalluzzo. Journal of Business. October 2002.

Financing Patterns of Small Firms: Findings from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finance. Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration. September 2003. Research Bulletin

The resurgence of black business in America - Special Advertising Section. April W. Klimley. Black Enterprise. June, 2003.

The top teen CEOs: these 2003 Kidpreneur Award nominees are holdin' it down! Feona Sharhran Huff. Black Enterprise, June 2003.

Earl Graves on the State of Black Business. Earl G. Graves. The Virginian-Pilot. May 13, 2003

Young Blacks Try Entrepreneurship. Daniel Altman. The New York Times. May 6, 2003

On the cutting edge: who will lead the next tech revolution? B.E. takes a look at entrepreneurs, researchers, and scientists inspired to change the way we work and live - Black Digerati. Sonya A. Donaldson. Black Enterprise, May 2003. B.E. takes a look at entrepreneurs, researchers, and scientists inspired to change the way we work and live.

The homeownership gap: blacks cite lack of knowledge, up-front costs as biggest obstacles - Facts & Figures. Alan Hughes. Black Enterprise. May 2003.

Financial obstacles faced by African American entrepreneurs: an insight into a developing area of the U.S. economy. Millicent Lownes-Jackson, Festus Olorunniwo, Phyllis Flott, James Ellzy. Journal of Developing Areas. Spring 2003

Back to basics: it's the ABCs of entrepreneurship that attract venture capital - Capital Matters. Latif Lewis. Black Enterprise, Feb 2003.

Uses of Equity Capital by Small Firms – Findings from the Surveys of Small Business Finances (for 1993 & 1998). Charles Ou and George W. Haynes. 2003. Paper presented at the Academy of Entrepreneurial Finance 14th International Conference, April 30 - May 2.

Borrowing Patterns for Small Firms: A Comparison by Race and Ethnicity. Susan Coleman. Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance and Business Ventures. 2003.

Small Firm Sources of Debt Capital: A Comparison by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity. Susan Coleman. University of Hartford. 2002.

The Borrowing Experience of Black and Hispanic-Owned Small Firms: Evidence from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances. Susan Coleman. The Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. 2002.

Characteristics and Borrowing Behavior of Small, Women-Owned Firms: Evidence from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances. Susan Coleman. The Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship. 2002.

Borrowing Behavior of Small Black-Owned Firms. Richard Cohn and Susan Coleman. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 2001

The "Liability of Newness" and Small Firm Access to Debt Capital: Is There a Link?. Susan Coleman, University of Hartford. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Academy of Entrepreneurial Finance, April 29, 2004

Free and Costly Trade Credit: A Comparison of Small Firms. Susan Coleman. Paper presented at the Academy of Entrepreneurial Finance 14th International Conference, April 30 - May 2, 2003.

An Examination of Information Sources and Assistance Programs Available To Minority-Owned Small Businesses. Marilyn Young. Journal of Developmental Enterprise. December 2002.

Minority Entrepreneurs: A Review of Current Literature. Gwen Richtermeyer. October 21, 2002.

Entrepreneurship: Minority Report. Mark Lewis. Forbes. October 17, 2002.

The Return of the Black Entrepreneur. Kimberly Weisul. BusinessWeek. October 7, 2002. A century ago, African Americans were the country's most ardent small-business owners. A new study suggests history is repeating itself.

A Tough Haul For Black Start-Ups. Kimberly Weisul; Sheridan Prasso. Business Week, October 2002.

Minority Report: A new study pinpoints the leading challenges facing businesses owned by minority women. Lori Ioannou. Fortune Small Business. July 23, 2002.

Where's the Money? Beth Kwon. Fortune Small Business. January 31, 2002. Despite efforts by banks to reach out to underfunded communities, many minority women entrepreneurs reveal that finding capital - and respect - are still among their toughest challenges.

Wealth Building Through Venture Capital. Alex P. Kellogg. July 12, 2002


Bob Johnson Talks Entrepreneurship. Stacy Gilliam. 2002.

Minority Business Triumphs in Gotham. Steven Malanga. City Journal, Spring 2002

Smart business tips for black entrepreneurs. Ebony. May 2002  

Making strides, but losing ground? Black, woman-owned firms growing, but at a slower pace than other groups. Alan Hughes, Black Enterprise, April 2002.

Financial Constraints, Start-up Firms and Personal Commitments. Ugur Lel and Gregory F. Udell. Kelley School of Business Working Paper. Indiana University. October 2002.


Report to the Congress on the Availability of Credit to Small Businesses. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, D.C. September 2002. Previous report: 1997


Powerful forces: three African American women take on the high-tech world - Black Digerati - Cover Story. Bridget McCrea. Black Enterprise, January 1, 2002


Equity financing of the entrepreneurial firm. Frank A. Schmid. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. November 2001.


An Investigation of Venture Capital in Women-and Minority-led Firms. Candida G. Brush, Nancy Carter, Elizabeth Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene, Myra M. Hart. Prepared for: U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, National Women’s Business Council. October 20, 2001.


African American Enterprise and the Global Marketplace: The Twenty-first Century. Natasha Bauman. Digest No. 01-03. July 2001. CELCEE Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership Clearinghouse on Entrepreneurship Education.


Blacks want to be own bosses, survey finds. Gina Holland. The Associated Press. July 22, 2001


The State of Minority Franchise Funding. Devlin Smith. July 16, 2001


Re-Defining "Minority Business": Challenges And Opportunities. Matthew C. Sonfield. Hofstra University. 2001.

From Swahili to Connectivity. Harry C. Alford, President & CEO, National Black Chamber of Commerce, Inc. February 14, 2001.

RUPRI - Rural Equity Capital Initiative: Fund for Rural America Study of Nontraditional Venture Capital Institutions, Final Report. 2001

Establishing Nontraditional Venture Capital Institutions: Lessons Learned

Nontraditional Venture Capital Institutions: Filling a Financial Market Gap

Establishing Nontraditional Venture Capital Institutions: The Decision Making Process

Case Studies

No shortcuts to entrepreneurship. Editorial. Earl G. Graves, Jr. Black Enterprise, September 2000.


Access to Credit and Financial Services Among Black Households. Maude Toussaint-Comeau & Sherrie L.W. Rhine. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. June 2000.


The Roberts Enterprise Development Fund: A Case Study on Venture Philanthropy. Melinda Tuan, with Jed Emerson. The Roberts Enterprise Development Fund. 1999.


Capital, Entrepreneurship, and Black Progress: Harnessing Black Financial Power Through a National Venture Capital Fund. Michael J. Isimbabi. Capital Researchers LLC. 1999.


Black managed is not black owned. Earl G. Graves. Black Enterprise, November 1999


Franchise 2000: The Gold Mine Is Minority Franchising. Carolyn Brown. Black Enterprise, May 1999. Companies that sell franchises are recognizing the diversity in the market by working harder to obtain minority owners in urban and inner-city markets.


Franchising stars shine - profiling successful Black franchisees - Special Advertising Section. Fourteen Black franchisees are profiled and their failures, perseverance, and success are highlighted. Black Enterprise, September 1997.


Franchising: the future is now; global entrepreneurship opportunities fro African Americans - Franching Showcase. Black Enterprise, May 1996.


Earl G. Graves Ltd. and Travelers Group to launch investment fund of at least $60 million: The Black Enterprise/Greenwich Street Fund. Business Wire, May 8, 1997.


New enterprises - Black entrepreneurs. Editorial. Earl G. Graves. Black Enterprise, September 1996.

How the Census Bureau devalues Black businesses - includes a related article on why the Census Bureau can't count - The B.E. 100s. Margaret C. Simms. Black Enterprise, June 1996.

And still we rise: census report tracks dramatic increase in start-ups of black-owned businesses. Cliff Hocker. Black Enterprise, April 1996

Black & Green: the untold story of the African-American entrepreneur - part 1 - excerpted from 'The Shaping of Black America'. Lerone Jr. Bennett & Charles White. Ebony, February 1, 1996.

Promoting a promising future: youth programs train the next generation of black entrepreneurs to run their businesses. Adrienne S. Harris. Black Enterprise, December 1994.

Owning our share - black entrepreneurs. Cheryl F. Wilson. Essence. April 1990.



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& Capital Researchers LLC